Scientific research can be classified as observational research, experimental research and meta-analysis according to data collection techniques. In this article, we will consider cohort analysis, which is one of the observational research techniques.
A cohort can be defined as groups of patients with common characteristics. Cohort analysis, on the other hand, is a study conducted by following a group of patients (cohort) over time. The main purpose of cohort analysis is to evaluate whether there is a causal relationship between the disease (outcome) and the suspected factors (factor). At the beginning of the study, a population of healthy individuals (who do not have the disease under study) constitutes. The group is evaluated in terms of suspected factors, and the data is recorded by monitoring for sufficient time for the disease to appear. The data can be used for survey, examination, laboratory examination, etc. can be obtained by various methods such as
Cohort analysis is divided into two according to research direction and time relationship;
- Retrospective Cohort Analysis
These are the cases in which patients are examined retrospectively over time. The aim here is to examine why and how the agents of the disease under investigation occur. In retrospective cohort analyses, the study is performed on recorded data.
- Prospective Cohort Analysis
These are the cases in which patients are examined prospectively over time. The aim here is to examine the effects of the agents of the investigated disease on the determined cohort. In prospective cohort analyses, the study takes place by observing and monitoring data.